Before you begin reading a paper, take note of the authors and their institutional affiliations. You need to be able to succinctly explain why this research has been done in order to understand it.
When databases and specimen repositories e. Participants in genetic studies may not want family members to know that they carry a specific trait fearing that they will be ostracized or blamed. Over time, clinicians will need to determine whether there is an improved, long-term, beneft-to-risk ratio that results from achieving biologic or endoscopic remission in patients with IBD.
Begin by reading the introduction, not the abstract. Some institutions have developed policies that would require disclosing information to parents in certain circumstances, such as in suicide research if there are threats of suicide by children, adolescents, or college students. Researchers and their staff need to be trained to be sensitive to the complexities and particular dilemmas potential participants face concerning privacy and disclosure and to communicate appropriately so participants can make informed decisions about volunteering for research.
Take notes, especially of any good sources they recommend. What, according to the authors, needs to be done next? This flow diagram is usually the first figure in the paper, and it shows the flow of subjects from recruitment through the end of the study or early exit from the study.
In addition, many states have passed genetic and health discrimination laws.
The process will go much faster as you gain experience. Blinding of both participants and evaluators is equally important, as patients who are aware of their intervention may have lower compliance, and investigators who are aware of the intervention may overestimate a treatment effect.
However, a prospective randomized trial comparing these drugs to placebo showed an increased risk of cardiac death in the treatment arms despite successful suppression of PVCs. Who has access to a data repository? Papers that go beyond numbers qualitative research — What is qualitative research?
Behavioral and social sciences research conducted at a university that is not a covered entity may not fall under the HIPAA regulations. How much detail was given about the change process, and what insights can be gleaned from this?
What, according to the authors, needs to be done next? Don't move on until you have thought about this. If patients in a placebo-controlled trial can deduce that they are in the placebo arm, they could be less likely to report improvement, leading to underestimation of the placebo effect and overestimation of the relative treatment effect.
What was the theoretical mechanism of action of the intervention? If the smaller study had failed to reach its recruiting goal and had stopped at 40 patients per arm, the P-value would not have been significant. Ethical Principles for Medical Research: For endoscopic endpoints, reproducibility has proven problematic, leading many studies to move to grading of endoscopic appearance by central reviewers in order to improve consistency.
Accessing DNA data banks and the medical histories of many people will be required to determine how genetic variation affects disease incidence, and to determine pharmacologic effects of various treatments. Readers may also discover that some of the outcomes mentioned on the initial registration page are not reported in the published paper.
Primary outcomes—such as remission, cure, and nonrecurrence— are stronger and more meaningful than surrogate outcomes such as biomarker levels. Have a research question in mind. If this is the case, this finding not only validates the statistical signifi-cance of the study results but also indicates that patients consider this difference to be clinically significant.
Do you see any that the authors missed? Identify and limit the number of people having access to the data, particularly when data are being transferred across locations, and be aware of when data are reproduced in other formats, such as faxes or computer files.
Called the last-observation-carried-forward approach, this method is reasonable, but it may inflate the success rates of both the primary intervention and the control arm, as a common reason patients do not return for visits is that they feel the treatment does not provide a clinical benefit.
Social and behavioral research may present dilemmas for researchers when data resulting from a behavioral study such as the use of a personality scale or depression inventory suggest that a participant might be at risk of harming himself or herself.
Establish confidentiality and data security safeguards. These studies require special attention to privacy and confidentiality. Be cautious of articles from questionable journalsor sites like Natural Newsthat might resemble peer-reviewed scientific journals but aren't.
The researcher should consider the scope of what is entrusted to him or her by the participants, and what is his or her duty to care for their well-being.
Disclosures in such clinical trials should be limited. Under court order or subpoena for example, there may be legal reasons for compelling a researcher to disclose the identity of, or information about, a research participant. Determine whether the results answer the specific question s.
What were the findings? You may also need to go to supplementary online information files to find some of the results. Look closely for evidence of agenda-motivated research.What makes a high quality clinical research paper?
What makes a high quality clinical research paper? Groves, T Oral Diseases () 16, – The quality of a research paper depends primarily on the quality of the research study it reports. However, there is also much that authors can do to maximise the clarity and usefulness of their papers.
Although only a few research studies fall within this category, occasionally a high-profile clinical trial, one involving a new, dramatic, high risk, potentially life-saving technology, attracts avid media coverage.
1. Am J Surg. Mar;(3) Ten rules for reading clinical research papers. Rosenman LD. Comment on Am J Surg. Jun;(6) In this article we signpost readers to 10 papers we consider essential reading for anyone starting out on an evidence-based medicine journey. Ten essential papers for the practice of evidence-based medicine - February 01, where the examination of evidence from clinical research is given equal place in clinical decision making as.
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“How to Read a Scientific Paper,” Research4Life Training portal Valerie Matarese, PhD (Ed). “ Usingstrategic, critical reading of research papers to teach scientific writing,” Supporting Research Writing: Rolesand challenges in multilingual settings,” Chandos Publishing, Elsevier ().Download